Bruce Morrison » Global Interdependence, 1960–Present

Global Interdependence, 1960–Present

Global Interdependence, 1960–Present

Through advances in science and technology, the countries of the world become increasingly interdependent, resulting in new global challenges.


Section 1: The Impact of Science and Technology

Section 2: Global Economic Development

Section 3: Global Security Issues

Section 4: Terrorism

Section 5: Cultures Blend in a Global Age


Section 1: The Impact of Science and Technology

Advances in technology after World War II lead to increased global interaction and improved quality of life.


Exploring the Solar System and Beyond


Cooperation in Space

• In early 1970s, Soviets and U.S. start cooperating in space

• Since 1980s, U.S. space shuttles often have international crews

• International Space Station—space project involving 16 nations

• Suspension of U.S. shuttle program endangers station’s completion


Exploring the Universe

• Unmanned probes are sent to study the outskirts of the solar system

• U.S., European space agencies put Hubble Space Telescope into orbit


Expanding Global Communications


Smaller, More Powerful Computers

• Computer components miniaturized due partly to space program

• Computers can fit in hands, instead of needing a whole room

• Computers now commonplace in factories, offices, vehicles, homes


Communications Network

• Internet—linkage of computer networks spanning the world

• Internet use soars from 26 to 600 million people from 1995–2002

• Internet greatly affects business, speeding up flow of information


Transforming Human Life


Health and Medicine

• New technologies make it easier to diagnose problems and do surgery

• Genetics—study of heredity through gene research—expands in 1980s

• Genetic engineering—changing organism’s genes to affect its traits

• Cloning—copying genes to reproduce an identical organism


The Green Revolution

• Green revolution—an attempt to increase food production worldwide

• Increased use of fertilizers, pesticides, and improved crop strains

• Green revolution increases yields, puts some farmers out of business

• Genetic engineering used to breed helpful traits into crop strains

Section 2: Global Economic Development

The economies of the world’s nations are so tightly linked that the actions of one nation affect others.


Technology Revolutionizes the World’s Economy


Advances in Industry

• Progress in science leads to new industries

• Technological advances change industrial processes

• Production costs are lower; quality and speed of production increase


Information Industries Change Economies

• New technologies reduce need for factory workers

• Using computers, information industries enjoy great growth


The Effects of New Economies

• Post-war boom benefits many nations; causes shifts in economic bases

• Developed nations—nations with advanced business infrastructures

• Emerging nations—nations in the process of becoming industrialized

• Manufacturing moves to emerging nations with cheap, eager labor

• Information industries multiply in developed nations


Economic Globalization


Global Economy

• Global economy begins to take shape in second half of 1800s

• Global economy—financial interactions across international borders


Multinational Corporations

• Many European, Japanese, U.S. companies spread across the world

• Establish offices, manufacturing, or stores in many countries


Expanding Free Trade

• Free trade—elimination of tariffs, trade barriers between nations

• Since 1995, World Trade Organization oversees free trade expansion


Regional Trade Blocs

• Starting in 1950s, European Economic Community becomes major force

• In 1992, takes name European Union (EU) and includes much of Europe

• U.S., Mexico, Canada form NAFTA in 1994

• North American Free Trade Agreement eliminates trade restrictions


Globalization—For and Against

• Supporters note that globalization increases standard of living

• Opponents say developed nations benefit most, poor nations stay poor


Impact of Global Development


Political Impacts

• Energy shortages can restrict trade, causing political problems

• Since the 1950s, oil has been major source of energy worldwide

• 1970s oil embargo causes economic problems for developed nations

• In 1990, Iraq invades Kuwait, seizes vast oil fields

• Fears mount that Iraq might control majority of world’s petroleum

• In early 1991, many nations send armies, drive Iraq out of Kuwait


Environmental Impacts

• Burning oil and coal promote development but damage environment

• Ozone layer—atmospheric layer that filters out ultraviolet light

• Chemicals called CFCs damage ozone layer; skin cancers increase

• More farming damages land; habitat destruction endangers wildlife


“Sustainable Growth”

• Scientists want to reduce the harm development does to environment

• Sustainable growth—preserving environment meeting economic needs


Section 3: Global Security Issues

Since 1945, nations have used collective security efforts to solve problems.


Issues of War and Peace


Nations Unite and Take Action

• After World War II, many nations join together in military alliances

• World leaders create the United Nations to avoid war when possible


Peacekeeping Activities

• UN mediates disputes between nations, provides peacekeeping forces

• In 2002, UN has 40,000 peacekeepers around the world


Weapons of Mass Destruction

• Nations sign treaties against chemical, biological, nuclear weapons

• Proliferation—spreading of nuclear weapons


Disarming Iraq

• Iraq expels inspectors overseeing destruction of banned weapons

• UN threatens “severe consequences” if Iraq stops inspectors’ return

• In 2003, U.S. and Britain lead coalition to disarm Iraq by force

Ethnic and Religious Conflicts

• Many conflicts have ethnic, racial, religious causes

• Some of these conflicts reach back decades, even centuries


Human Rights Issues


The UN and Human Rights

• Universal Declaration of Human Rights—sets human rights standards

• UN and other organizations work to improve human rights worldwide


Continuing Rights Violations

• Some governments suppress political dissent—difference of opinion

• Rwandan genocide, mass murder of about 500,000 Tutsis by Hutus


Women’s Status Improves

• Women gain rights like holding political office, or better education

• Gender inequality—status differences between men and women—remains


Health Issues


World Health

• Standard of health increased in recent years, but dangers remain

• Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) a major problem in 2003


The AIDS Epidemic

 AIDS—acquired immune deficiency syndrome, first discovered in 1980s

• AIDS attacks the immune system, weakening the body’s defenses

• Millions worldwide infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS

• Sub-Saharan Africa has by far the most AIDS cases and deaths 

Population Movement


Push-Pull Factors

• Many factors, like food shortage, push people to leave their homes

• Refugees—people who leave their country to find safety in another

• Many people pulled to developed nations hoping for a better life


Effects of Migration

• Some countries do not want refugees, turn them away

• Many refugees live in camps and have nowhere to go

• Immigrants provide needed labor and enrich culture


Section 4: Terrorism

Terrorism threatens the safety of people all over the world.


What Is Terrorism?


Modern Terrorism

• Terrorism—use of violence to force social or political change

• More than 14,000 terrorist attacks worldwide since 1960

• Many terrorists have political goals; some have religious motives

Terrorist Methods

• Terrorists use bombs, guns, sometimes chemical, biological agents

• Terrorists gain attention by striking high-profile, symbolic targets

• Cyberterrorism—attacks on computer and information systems


Responding to Terrorism

• Governments try to stop terrorist groups and cut off their funding


Terrorism Around the World


International Terrorism Gets Attention

• Palestinian terrorists kill Israeli athletes at 1972 Munich Olympics


The Middle East

• Many terrorist groups founded because of Israeli-Palestinian conflict

• These groups want Palestinian homeland

• Pattern: terror strikes, Israeli retaliation, more terror attacks



• Irish Republican Army opposes British control of Northern Ireland

• Negotiations for a peaceful resolution ongoing since 1998



• In 1996, al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden set up base in Afghanistan

• Japanese religious cult launches gas attack in Tokyo subway in 1995



• Regional wars and civil unrest lead to terrorism in Africa

• Al-Qaeda linked to attacks on U.S. personnel, facilities there

Latin America

• Terrorism linked to drug trafficking; narcoterrorism a major problem

• Colombia fights guerrilla groups linked to drug traffickers


Attack on the United States


The Destruction

• On September 11, 2001, Arab terrorists hijack four airliners

• Hijackers crash two jets into World Trade Center towers in New York

• One crashes into the Pentagon, one into a field in Pennsylvania

• WTC towers collapse; extensive damage at Pentagon

• 3,000 die in the attacks

• Victims include about 400 New York City firefighters, police


The Impact of the Attack

• Many Americans feel vulnerable as a result of September 11

• Members of Congress, media workers get anthrax-tainted letters

• 5 people, including 2 postal workers, killed by anthrax

• No link found between anthrax, September 11; both spread fear


The United States Responds


Antiterrorism Measures

• Department of Homeland Security—created in 2002 to fight terrorism

• U.S. detains Arabs, Muslims considered suspicious; many protest

• Government defends wartime suspension of civil liberties

• In 2001, Congress passes USA Patriot Act—anti-terrorism measure


Aviation Security

• Sky marshals, National Guard provide airplane, airport security

• Airport inspections, cockpit security increase


Section 5: Cultures Blend in a Global Age

Technology has increased contact among the world’s people, changing their cultures.


Cultural Exchange Accelerates


Popular Culture

• Popular culture—cultural elements reflecting a common background


Mass Media

• Access to TV high in developed nations, increasing in emerging world

• Newscasts and documentaries spread information quickly

• TV, radio, movies, and other mass media spread popular culture


International Elements of Popular Culture

• American programs are broadcast all over the world

• Sports, music from around the world are broadcast to other countries


World Culture Blends Many Influences


Westernizing Influences on Different Cultures

• European colonization and Western mass media spread Western culture

• English is the premier international language

• Growth of materialism—placing high value on material possessions


Non-Western Influences

• Non-Western ideas also come to Europe and the United States

• Music, clothing styles, ideas, religion entering Western life


The Arts Become International

• Better transportation, technology spread art, literature worldwide


Future Challenges and Hopes


Reactions to Global Popular Culture

• Many seek to limit West’s influence to preserve national identity

• Others modify or censor incoming mass media

• Some react by trying to return to traditional ways


Global Interdependence

• People around the world realize how events far away affect them

• Economic, political, environmental issues bring nations together

• Humans face new challenges as they increase contact