Bruce Morrison » Transformations Around the Globe, 1800–1914

Transformations Around the Globe, 1800–1914

China and Japan respond differently to the European powers. The United States influences Latin America, and Mexico undergoes a revolution.


Section 1: China Resists Outside Influence

Section 2: Modernization in Japan

Section 3: U.S. Economic Imperialism

Section 4: Turmoil and Change in Mexico


Section 1: China Resists Outside Influence

Western economic pressure forces China to open to foreign trade and influence.


China and the West


Rejecting Western Goods

  • In 1793,Chinarejects gifts brought by British ambassador
  • Chinais strong politically because it is largely self-sufficient - agriculture, mining, manufacturing sectors highly productive


The Tea-Opium Connection

  • Guangzhou, southern port, is only port open to foreign trade
  • Chinaearns more from its exports than it spends on imports
  • British smuggle opium (late 1700s); many Chinese become addicted


War Breaks Out

  • In 1839,Opium Warerupts—fight caused by opium trade
  • Chinaloses the war to more modern British navy
  • Treaty ofNanjing(1842) gives British control of Hong Kong
  • In 1844, other nations win extraterritorial rights
  • Rights mean foreigners exempt from laws atGuangzhou, other ports


Growing Internal Problems

  • China’s population booms from 1790 to 1850
  • Crop yields do not grow as fast, producing widespread hunger, unrest


The Taiping Rebellion

  • In late 1830s, Hong Xiuquan recruits followers to build newChina
  • Taiping Rebellion—name given Hong’s movement; taiping—“great peace”
  • In 1850s, Hong’s army grows large, captures large areas in southeast
  • By 1864, rebellion defeated by internal fighting, outside attack


Foreign Influence Grows


Resistance to Change

  • Dowager Empress Cixirules China most years from 1862 to 1908
  • Supports reforms aimed at education, government, military
  • Otherwise prefers traditional ways


Other Nations Step In

  • Chinasuffers attacks from other nations; forced to grant more rights
  • Europeans,Japangain spheres of influence—areas of economic control
  • U.S.declares Open Door Policy (1899) - Chinese trade open to all nations


An Upsurge in Chinese Nationalism


Growing Dissension

  • Many Chinese resent growing power of outsiders, press for change
  • In 1898, Emperor Guangxu enacts reforms; Cixi, restored, ends them


The Boxer Rebellion

  • Anti-government, anti-European peasants form secret organization
  • In 1900, they launchBoxer Rebellion—their campaign for reforms
  • Rebels takeBeijing, but foreign army defeats them, ending rebellion
  • Though rebellion fails, Chinese nationalism surges


The Beginnings of Reform

  • Cixi and other conservatives recognize necessity of reform
  • In 1905, she sends officials abroad to study other governments
  • In 1906, Cixi begins making reforms but they move slowly
  • Unrest continues for four more decades


Section 2: Modernization in Japan

Japan follows the model of Western powers by industrializing and expanding its foreign influence.


JapanEnds Its Isolation


The Demand for Foreign Trade

  • Treaty of Kanagawa(1854)—Japan opens two ports to American ships
  • By 1860,Japanhas trade agreements with many nations


Meiji Reform and Modernization

  • Anger over these trade deals forces shogun to step down in 1867
  • Meiji era—time of reform begun by Meiji emperor, Mutsuhito
  • Meiji emperor reforms, modernizes using Western models
  • By early 1900s,Japanhas industrialized, is competitive with West


Imperial Japan


Military Strength

  • By 1890,Japanhas strong navy and large army
  • In 1894,Japangets Western nations to give up special rights


Japan Attacks China

  • Japanforces Korea to open three ports to Japanese trade in 1876
  • In 1885,Japanand China agree not to send troops to Korea
  • In 1894,Chinasends troops to put down rebellion in Korea
  • Japandrives Chinese out of Korea, gains Chinese territory 


Russo-Japanese War

  • In 1903,Japanand Russia begin struggle over Manchuria
  • Japanattacks Russia in 1904, launching Russo-Japanese War
  • In 1905, treaty ends the war;Japangains captured territories


Japanese Occupation of Korea

  • Japanmakes Korea a protectorate in 1905
  • In 1910,Japancompletes annexation of Korea
  • Japanrules harshly in Korea, leading to growing Korean nationalism


Section 3: U.S. Economic Imperialism

The United States places increasing economic and political pressure on Latin America during the 19th century.


Latin America After Independence


Colonial Legacy

  • Political gains mean little to desperately poor Latin Americans
  • Peonage system keeps peasants in debt; landowners grow wealthy


Political Instability

  • Caudillos—military dictators—gain and hold power, backed by military
  • By the mid-1800s, caudillos rule in most Latin American countries
  • Reformers sometimes gain office, but eventually are forced out
  • Wealthy landowners support caudillos; poor people have few rights


Economies Grow Under Foreign Influence


Old Products and New Markets

  • Economies depend on exporting one or two products
  • Trains and refrigeration increase demand for Latin American foods
  • Latin Americans import manufactured goods; industrialization lags


Outside Investment and Interference

  • These countries build few schools, roads, hospitals
  • Governments forced to borrow money from other countries
  • Loans not repaid; properties repossessed; foreign control increases


A Latin American Empire


The Monroe Doctrine

  • Newly independent countries of theAmericasare insecure
  • In 1823,U.S.issues Monroe Doctrine—Europe cannot colonize Americas


Cuba Declares Independence

  • In 1895,José Martí—Cuban writer—launches war for Cuban independence
  • U.S.fights to help Cuba in 1898, leading to Spanish-American War
  • In 1901,Cubanominally independent; U.S. has significant control
  • After war,Spaingives U.S. Puerto Rico, Guam, the Philippines


Connecting the Oceans

  • U.S.wants faster way of going from east to west coast by ship
  • President Roosevelt backs idea of building canal acrossPanama
  • Colombiarejects Roosevelt’s $10 million canal offer
  • In 1903,Panamagains independence from Colombia with U.S. help
  • Panamagives land to U.S. to build canal
  • U.S.builds Panama Canal—waterway connecting Atlantic and Pacific


The Roosevelt Corollary

  • U.S.bolsters its influence in Latin America through many avenues
  • investments in Cuba, other countries
  • In 1904,Rooseveltissues update of Monroe Doctrine
  • Roosevelt Corollary—U.S.can be police power in the Americas
  • U.S.uses corollary to justify repeated military interventions


Section 4: Turmoil and Change in Mexico

Political, economic, and social inequalities in Mexico trigger a period of revolution and reform.


Santa Anna and the Mexican War


Santa Anna

  • In early 1800s, Antonio López deSanta Annadominates Mexican politics
  • Serves as president four times between 1833 and 1855


The Texas Revolt

  • In 1820s, Mexican officials encourage Americans to settle inTexas
  • Thousands of English-speaking “Anglos” settle in the area
  • Want more self-government, causing problems withMexico
  • In 1835, Texans revolt and win independence; Santa Anna loses power


War and the Fall of Santa Anna

  • In 1845,U.S.annexes Texas; Mexico outraged
  • In 1846, war breaks out betweenU.S.and Mexico
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo(1848)—northern third of Mexico to U.S.
  • Santa Anna, who had lost war, loses power again


Juárez and La Reforma


A New Leader

  • Benito Juárez—liberal reformer who wanted to make changes inMexico


Juárez Rises to Power

  • Works as lawyer helping poor people, gains good reputation


Juárez Works for Reform

  • Juárez’sLa Reforma—movement to redistribute land, reform education
  • He and other reformers suffer exile in 1853, but return
  • Conservative, wealthy Mexicans oppose reforms, launch rebellion
  • In 1861, reformers win civil war and Juárez elected president


The French Invade Mexico

  • Conservatives plot with Europeans to defeat Juárez and reform
  • In 1862, French send army toMexicoand take control of country
  • They install Austrian Archduke Maximilian as emperor
  • Fighting continues for five years; in 1867, Maximilian defeated
  • Juárez, president again, puts reforms in place
  • He dies in 1872, but country is peaceful and making progress


Porfirio Díaz and “Order and Progress”


Rise of a Caudillo

  • Porfirio Díaz—caudillo who takes power in 1876
  • Díaz ends reforms and builds own power, suppressing opponents
  • He trades land, political favors for support; elections meaningless
  • His tactics bring order toMexico, but freedoms reduced
  • Some economic progress, but rich gain wealth and poor suffer


Revolution and Civil War


Madero Begins the Revolution

  • Unrest over harsh rule of Díaz grows throughout Mexican society
  • Reformer Francisco Madero calls for armed revolt against Díaz
  • Pancho” Villa—popular revolutionary leader from the north ofMexico
  • Emiliano Zapata—revolutionary leader from southernMexico
  • Villa, Zapata score important victories over Díaz’s army
  • Diaz forced to step down, calls for new elections in 1911


Mexican Leaders Struggle for Power

  • In 1911, Madero elected president; unrest continues
  • In 1913, Madero resigns; General Victoriano Huerta becomes president
  • After 15 months of fighting, rebels win; Carranza becomes president
  • Civil war ends in 1919 with Zapata’s death


The New Mexican Constitution

  • Mexico’s new constitution: land reform, education, workers’ rights
  • Alvaro Obregón ousts Carranza in 1920, continues reforms